They aid movement in aquatic sports such as swimming, surfing, and underwater diving. Swim fins are typically made of rubber or plastic. Benjamin Franklin invented wooden swim fins in Contrary to today’s version of rubberized swim fins worn on the feet, Franklin’s swim fins were originally intended for use on a person’s hands. Shaped like lily pads or an artist’s paint palette, they helped attain greater speed with each stroke. It is a type of reflecting instrument that uses mirrors to reflect the path of light to the observer and, in doing so, doubles the angle measured. This allows the instrument to use a one-eighth circle arc to measure a quarter circle or quadrant. The octant was invented in by Thomas Godfrey , a glazier in Philadelphia, and independently at the same time in England by the mathematician John Hadley , who began work on a similar version of the octant. Originally this instrument was referred to as “Hadley’s quadrant”, after the English inventor.

Different Types of Grounding Electrodes

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Franklin was trying to confirm that lightning was electricity. He did prove that and he was lucky. Today we know that the energy from a single bolt of lightning can power a watt bulb for up to 90 days. The Bolt Formation As a cumulonimbus cloud—a storm cloud—forms into an anvil shape, electrical charges develop. At the top of the cloud, positive charges gather; at the bottom, negative. This imbalance causes lightning and thunder. If the ground below is filled with positive charges, lightning will strike.

According to the book Weather, lightning can heat the air around it to more than 54, degrees—and that explosive expansion of air causes the thunder we hear. You can use the fact that light travels faster than sound to estimate your distance from a lightning strike. Count the seconds between seeing the bolt and hearing its thunder.

Then divide that number by five. The answer will tell you the approximate distance in miles. Where and When While thunderstorms can happen anywhere on Earth, they are most common in areas with warm, steamy weather.

Antique Lightning Rod Balls

By Stuart Bourdon October 04, There are not too many things more fun that a modern-day mud bog and monster truck show, with lightning fast, high-powered V-8s screaming loud like mechanical banshees and the smell of nitro in the air! But just like hot rods having a history that goes back to the moon-shine running days, mud-bogging is nothing new either, as witnessed in this film above dating back to sometime in the s.

What we see here is apparently a s-vintage Dodge Brothers sedan driving down miles and miles of deep and rutted muddy roads, and across muddy fields, to get to the gushing oil well. Many of us at Off Road Xtreme remember our parents and grandparents talking of a time when most of their cross-country drives meant plenty of unpaved roads, and what we think of as wild and wooly off-roading was just a common occurrence to them.

Truth be told, in the s, of the approximately three million miles of roads crossing the U. Watch as the car bounds and bounces along, gets stuck and backs up a few times, and eventually rolls onto its side.

Kovels price guide on Lightning Rod balls “Lightning Rod Ball Collector’s Guide” book by Frazier is a good reference but hard to find since it is out of print. Many Lightning Rod Balls are .

See Article History Alternative Title: Because lightning tends to strike the highest object in the vicinity, rods are typically placed at the apex of a structure and along its ridges; they are connected to the ground by low- impedance cables. In the case of a building, the soil is used as the ground ; on a ship , the water is used. A lightning rod and its associated grounding conductors provide protection because they divert the current from nonconducting parts of the structure, allowing it to follow the path of least resistance and pass harmlessly through the rod and its cables.

It is the high resistance of the nonconducting materials that causes them to be heated by the passage of electric current, leading to fire and other damage. On structures less than 30 metres about feet in height, a lightning rod provides a cone of protection whose ground radius approximately equals its height above the ground. On taller structures, the area of protection extends only about 30 metres from the base of the structure. Left bottom Connecting two rods with a wire extends the zone of protection.

Right Towers taller than 30 metres provide protection for an area 30 metres high and 60 metres wide. The protected zone is in the shape of an inverted funnel with inward-curving sides. Towers between 15 and 30 metres high create protected zones of similar shape but with height and width equal to tower height.

Antique Sad and Flat Irons

If a similar ball is charged by the same glass rod, it is found to repel the first: Two balls that are charged with a rubbed amber rod also repel each other. However, if one ball is charged by the glass rod, and the other by an amber rod, the two balls are found to attract each other. These phenomena were investigated in the late eighteenth century by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb , who deduced that charge manifests itself in two opposing forms.

Illuminating facts about lightning. Earth Science. We’re all familiar with the image of Benjamin Franklin flying a kite with a key tied to string as he tried to catch a lightning strike. Franklin was trying to confirm that lightning was electricity. He did prove that and he was lucky. Human lightning rods.

It cannot be more explicit. This vast monument of uncertain origin was among the first lightning traps , a sacred architectural complex where the novices were given awakening by fire from heaven. Teotihuacan was once, and during a long time, the largest city in Mexico, and the capital of the largest pre-Columbian empire. Two main avenues running north-south and east-west divided the city into quarters.

The ancient city was built according to a specific grid, and stretched over 8 square miles. When was this beautiful architectural set built?

Song of Myself

My Personal Music Archive: These lists are much longer than the one arranged by rank, which only includes inventions found on 4 or more of the 21 original source lists. This version of the list also contains much more information about the invention, including precursors, improvements and further developments. Thanks to Wikipedia for most of the content and many of the images. For Part 2 of the list , go here.

Sold brass lightning rod with ruby red ball marked GEO. E. THOMPSON LIGHTNING ROD CO. W.C. Shinn Amber Belted lightning rod ball with both caps ; The Glass ball is light purple with some bubbles. The vane seems to have been guilded or gold leafed on both ends, as quite a bit is still visable.

Patriots Patriots Season Preview A fourth super bowl trip in five years? A sixth ring this century? We needn’t say more. Malcolm Butler is at his locker, talking music with Devin McCourty. Wanting to own the Bills or getting rejected by the Bills? Recall that in , the team logo was redesigned to look more like Bon Jovi.

Illuminating facts about lightning

Grounding is the process of electrically connecting any metallic object to the earth by the way of an earth electrode system. The National Electric Code requires that the grounding electrodes be tested to ensure that they are under ohms resistance-to-ground Earth. It is important to know that aluminum electrodes are not allowed for use in grounding.

Driven Rod The standard driven rod or copper-clad rod consists of an 8 to 10 foot length of steel with a 5 to mil coating of copper.

Gravestones dating back to the early ’s rest among remnant prairie plants such as wild quinine, yellow coneflower, royal catchfly and big and little bluestem. The bridge is the only bridge in Indiana with lightning rods. A tiger swallowtail butterfly on wild bergamot near West Union Covered Bridge in Parke County.

It helps saves lives and provides great benefits to mankind in innumerable ways. Radiation is no different than other tools. If used improperly it can be hazardous to health or cause injury. But, if proper precautions are followed radiation can be used safely to achieve superior results. We will briefly introduce some basic radiation safety concepts and principles as they apply to the use of portable nuclear gauges.

While the human body can sense and take actions to prevent injury by many physical agents, such as heat and noise, it cannot sense radiation. Therefore, it is important to understand the nature of radiation, its sources, and how to protect yourself and others. A Brief History In , a German physicist named Wilhelm Roentgen fortuitously discovered X-rays while experimenting with evacuated glass tubes through which an electric current was passed.

Roentgen discovered he could take a picture of the bones in his hand with the mysterious new rays. Henri Becquerel of France discovered natural radioactivity a year later.

Lightning Rods